Metabolic changes leading to the synthesis of proteins, fats and carbohydrates are referred to as anabolic. Their counterpart are marked catabolic mechanisms that are responsible for the breakdown and decomposition of complex structures such as proteins or fats. A healthy person always moves in a state of metabolic equilibrium, where the anabolic and catabolic processes in balance. AS is a substance whose structure is very similar to the male sex hormone testosterone and therefore may have an impact on the formation of tissues.
Synthetic AS have all been designed suitable modification of the testosterone molecule. This modification has been a number of different types that are to some extent different characteristics. Individual steroid preparations have a different relationship to the quality of androgenic (male characteristics highlighting) and anabolic (tissue growth promoting) effects. Efforts to suppress the androgen testosterone exposure resulted in the development and production of so-called. Anabolic steroids, which, however, never been to suppress androgenic properties. For example, some of the AS minimum support increases male characteristics (eg, Anavar), so that more women use. Unfortunately, these too do not support the AS or the formation of new tissue. This led to the conclusion that these two effects are indivisible.
Modification of testosterone helped create AS, which are processed by the body more slowly. If you take oral free testosterone (chemically modified) will be immediately absorbed by the liver. If you take it orally pass through the liver first, and then gets into skeletal muscle. Up to 98% of free testosterone is absorbed already in its first pass. Injected with free testosterone is first getting to the muscles and then to the liver. However, there is a 98% free testosterone is absorbed already in its first pass.
AS To be effective, they must be able to (before they become ineffective) several times to pass through the bloodstream. Modification testosterone molecule and adding elements group (alkyl group), a specific place (known as Alpha position - referred to as well as the position on the 17th carbon) have been created on the AS, which are heavier liver processor (Alpha-alkyl). AS based on this principle are able to pass through the liver several times and then become ineffective. This allows you to get AS to the muscles, causing there to have a desirable effect. But the liver is then forced to work much more. Most oral AS was created by a very similar way, therefore can cause liver failure.
Injecting AS are based on the base, so they are generally safer and usually present a danger to the liver. But some AS such. stanozolol (produced both in oral as well as injectable form) is chemically comparable to oral and therefore have the same effect (and unfortunately most undesirable).
The main role in the play AS injection of testosterone esters. Ester is a compound produced by the reaction between any fatty acid and alcohol (for AS is made esterification of steroid molecule at the position 17th carbon). Esterification of testosterone makes effective even if before the liver is absorbed, makes only one pass through the bloodstream. Most of the AS injection is administered intramuscularly, because the active substance reaches the muscle rather than the liver. These esters act longer and are safer than oral alpha-alkyl steroids.
The greater the number of carbon will have a fatty acid, the slower the release of steroid ester from the injection site in the muscle circulation and the longer the biological effectiveness of the injection preparation. Therefore can inject a long period. The most frequently used for the esterification are acid (names are in the form of acid salts):
- propionate (3 carbons)
- enanthate (7 carbons)
- cypionate (8 carbons)
- phenylpropionate (9 carbons)
- decanoate (10 carbons)
- undecanoate (11 carbons)
- laurate (12 carbons)
- hexyloxyfenylpropionát (15 carbons)
Few esters (eg methenolon acetate and testosterone undecanoate) can be administered orally. It is not entirely clear why methenolon acetate is also effective orally. Testosterone undecanoate enters the bloodstream through the lymphatic system and the liver, thus largely bypassing. These two esters are less burden on the liver than other oral steroids.
Anabolism of proteins leads to a reduction in excretion of urea (a waste product of protein metabolism) without changes in current excretion of uric acid, ammonia and nitrogen. Addition there is a reduction in urinary phosphate, chloride, calcium, sodium and potassium. But when he returns to normal nitrogen equilibrium, anabolic effect does not continue. At this point the phase degradation occurs.
Once stopped steroids, usually appears "feedback shock" accompanied by negative nitrogen balance and a significant decrease in body weight. The level of impact depends on the type of medication used, duration of administration, dosage, and their total physiological state of the individual.